2023-2024 District-wide School Safety Plan

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District wide


Emergencies and violent incidents in school districts are critical issues that must be addressed in an expeditious and effective manner. School Districts are required to develop a District Wide School Safety Plan designed to prevent or minimize the effects of serious, violent incidents, declared state disaster emergency involving a communicable disease or local public health emergency declaration and other emergencies and to facilitate the coordination of schools with local and county resources in the event of such incidents or emergencies.

The District Wide Plan is responsive to the needs of all schools within the District and is consistent with the more detailed emergency response plans required at the school building level. Schools are at risk of a wide variety of acts of violence and natural and technological disasters. To address these threats, the State of New York has enacted the Safe Schools Against Violence in Education (SAVE) law.

This component of Project SAVE is a comprehensive planning effort that addresses risk reduction/prevention, response, and recovery with respect to a variety of emergencies in the District and its schools.

The Cohoes City School District supports the SAVE Legislation and intends to facilitate the planning process. The Superintendent of Schools encourages and advocates on-going district- wide cooperation and support of Project SAVE.

Section I: General Considerations

A. Purpose

The Cohoes City School District-Wide School Safety Plan was developed pursuant to Commissioner’s Regulation 155.17. At the direction of the Cohoes Board of Education, the Superintendent of Cohoes City School District appointed a District Wide School Safety Team and charged it with the development and maintenance of the School Safety Plan.

B. Identification of School Teams

The members of the District Wide School Safety Team will be appointed on an annual basis. The District Wide School Safety Team will consist of, but not be limited to, representatives of the School Board, students, teachers, administrators, parent organizations, school safety personnel, and other school personnel. The members of the team and their positions or affiliations are as follows:

  • Peggy O’Shea – Superintendent
  • Daniel Martinelli – Assistant Superintendent
  • Stacy Mackey – School Business Official
  • Erin Hill – Director of Special Programs
  • James Stapleton – Director of Facilities
  • Raychel Marcil – Director of Multi-Tiered Systems of Support
  • Laura Tarlo – High School Principal
  • Heather Bradt – High School Assistant Principal
  • Gabrielle White – High School Dean of Students
  • Jeff Huneau – Athletic Director/Dean
  • Kyle McFarland- Middle School Principal
  • Deanna Kelly – Middle School Assistant Principal
  • Jill Havens – Middle School Dean of Students
  • Courtney Valente  – Teacher, Cohoes Middle School
  • Mark Perry – Harmony Hill Principal
  • Clifford Bird – Abram Lansing Principal
  • Jacqueline DeChiaro – Van Schaick Principal
  • Peter Mahoney – Network Administrator
  • Mary Beth Galarneau – Communications Specialist
  • Laura Gerhard – Harmony Hill School Psychologist
  • Drew Rentz – School Safety Officer
  • Amanda Dorr – Van Schaick Teacher
  • Tina Kellar – Abram Lansing Teacher
  • Mike Kloczko- Cohoes High School Science Teacher
  • Samantha McCullough – Cohoes High School Nurse
  • Sandra Kipp – Abram Lansing School Nurse
  • Lisa LeBlanc – Harmony Hill School Nurse
  • Stacy Nolan – Middle School Senior Typist – CSEA Representative
  • Russ Grestini – Buildings/Grounds/ Maintenance
  • Kaylin Dawson – Parent
  • Margaret Giller – Board of Education Member
  • Marianne Gendron – Board of Education Member
  • Mayor Bill Keeler – City of Cohoes
  • Todd Waldin– Cohoes Police Chief
  • Joseph Fahd – Cohoes Fire Chief/Emergency Manager
  • Capital Region BOCES Safety Consultant

The District-Wide Safety Team developed the District-Wide School Safety Plan with input from appropriate school employees, i.e. food services coordinator.

The Chief Emergency Officer shall act as the liaison between the District and external agencies during time of emergencies as well as during plan development and maintenance. The Chief Emergency Officer for the Cohoes City School District is Ms. Peggy O’Shea.

C. Concept of Operations

  • The District-wide School Safety Plan is directly linked to the individual Building Level Emergency Response Plans as a matter of protocol. The activation of a Building Level Emergency Response Plan triggers the notification of the chain of command and the assessment of the activation of the District Wide Emergency Response Plan and District Wide Response Team.
  • The District-wide School Safety Plan was developed through extensive analysis of the local environment, emergency potential, and available resources. Through training and workshops that included school employees, administration and local emergency services, the plan has been developed to address the specific needs of the Cohoes City School District and the community.
  • In the event of an emergency or violent incident, the initial response to all emergencies at an individual school will be by the School Emergency Response Team. The building principal is responsible for notifying the District Superintendent or the highest ranking person in the chain of command of any necessary building level plan activation. This notification shall be accomplished through the use of telephone or the district’s radio network.
  • Upon the activation of the School Emergency Response Team, the Superintendent of Schools or their designee, shall be notified and, where appropriate, local emergency officials shall also be notified.
  • County and state resources supplement the District’s emergency action planning in a number of ways:
    • State and local law enforcement provide building reviews and employee training.
    • Local law enforcement and emergency services participate in planning and training exercises and develop strategies for managing Building Level emergencies.
    • A protocol exists for the District to use certain facilities for sheltering during times of emergencies.
    • A protocol exists for the use of county mental health resources during post incident responses.

D. Plan Review and Public Comment

  • Pursuant to Commissioner’s Regulation, Section 155.17 (e)(3), this plan will be made available for public comment at least 30 days prior to its adoption. The District’s Board of Education shall adopt the District-wide Plan only after one public hearing that provides for the participation of school personnel, parents, students and any other interested parties. The plan shall be formally adopted by the Board of Education.
  • Full copies of the District-wide School Safety Plan and any amendments shall be submitted to the New York State Education Department within 30 days of adoption.
  • This plan shall be reviewed periodically during the year and maintained by the District Wide School Safety Team. The required annual review shall be completed on or before July 1st of each year and the plan shall be amended as needed. The Board of Education shall adopt the District Wide School Safety Plan by September 1st.

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Risk Reduction/Prevention and Intervention

A. Prevention/Intervention Strategies Program Initiatives

The District has developed a number of programs and activities to aid in risk reduction. These initiatives are run at different age groups within the District. Examples of the topics covered:

District Wide:

  • Character Education Programming
  • PBIS (Positive Behavior Intervention & Supports)
  • Social Workers and School Psychologist in all five (5) buildings
  • Conflict resolution utilizing trained social workers and other trained personnel
  • District Code of Conduct
  • Crisis response/intervention plan
  • Use of staff trained in de-escalating and other strategies to diffuse potentially violent situations.
  • Student Council
  • Northern Rivers – Behavioral Health Center –  located at Cohoes Middle School
  • Tiered behavioral interventions
  • Functional Behavioral Assessment and Individual Behavior Plans
  • Cyber Safety presentations and Digital Citizenship lessons


  • Apple A Day at all elementary building
  • Second Step – social/emotional programs at all elementary schools
  • Elementary Summer Success


  • School counselors to assist with at-home and/or in-school concerns for all middle school and high school students
  • AIM (Academics, Integrity, & Making a Difference) program at the High School
  • 9th grade Academy
  • Restorative Practices (grades 9-12)
  • Citizen Preparedness Training – American Red Cross (high school)
  • Tobacco Free Coalition – Juul prevention training (high school)
  • Second Step Social Emotional – (middle school)
  • Positivity Project – (high school)
  • No Place for Hate – (middle and high school)
  • “Tiger Awards” program for positive behavior at the Middle School
  • Berkshire Farms Prevention Services (middle school)
  • Summer Learning Academy (grades 6-8)
  • Summer School (grades 9-12)

Facilities Initiatives

The District has attempted to enhance the security of its facilities through a number of initiatives, including the following:

  • Parent/visitor sign-in procedure and required use of visitor ID badges with visual contact.
  • Staff use of faculty/staff ID badges.
  • Single point of access for visitors at each building, with buzzer access.
  • Building security cameras have been upgraded.
  • Classroom emergency procedures are implemented throughout the buildings.
  • School Safety Officers at the High School and Middle School and are on call for the Elementary Schools as needed.
  • Campus Safety Monitors

Training, Drills, and Exercises

  • The District has established policies and procedures for annual multi-hazard school safety training for employees and students. This includes and annual review of the building level emergency guides and employee awareness training conducted by each principal and;
    • Building fire drills/lockdown drills throughout the course of the year in compliance with the SED schedule for the purpose of familiarizing employees and students with emergency procedures.

The District shall conduct drills and other exercises to test and evaluate the effectiveness of the District’s Emergency Response Plan. Each building principal will forward a schedule of planned emergency drills and fire drills to the District Superintendent by the beginning of each school year. Each principal will be required to complete a minimum number of student drills as follows:

  • 4  lockdown drills, 8 fire/evacuation drills. 8 of which must be conducted by December 31 of each year, the balance must be conducted during the remainder of the school year.
  • 2 drills to be conducted over the summer in student occupied buildings. 1 of these drills must be held during the first week of summer session.
  • Topics for training will include general security and safety measures, building security awareness, mental health awareness, violence and crisis prevention and intervention and reporting requirements and procedures including:- Required annual School Violence and Mental Health training
    – Safe Schools Training – offered through Utica National
    – Cohoes Police presentations at staff meetings
    – Expanded Crisis Intervention and Prevention Training
    – First Aid/CPR/AED training
    – Tiered Behavioral Interventions and supports

In the execution of their duties, faculty and aides shall have responsibility for:

    • Monitoring halls, lavatories, locker rooms, locker bays and similar areas, assuring orderly passage of students and pre-emptive intervention in potentially disruptive situations.
    • Observation of the general property, including the immediate outside area/perimeter of the building(s), with an obligation to report suspicious activity to district or building administration.
    • Overseeing study halls, cafeterias, or other areas of student assemblage with the goal of assisting to maintain an orderly, safe environment.

Chief Emergency Officer

The Chief Emergency Officer shall act as the liaison between the District and external agencies during times of emergencies, as well as during plan development and maintenance.

School Safety Personnel

School safety personnel have a critical role in violence prevention. The following represents a description of the responsibilities of school safety personnel in schools:

The building principal or his/her designee shall serve as the School Safety Representative for the school building. The responsibilities of the School Safety Representative are as follows:

  • Monitor hallways, entranceways, exits and outside grounds during school hours for unusual occurrences or unauthorized visitors.
  • Act as building liaison in communicating building level safety issues or concerns.
  • Represent the building on the District-Wide Health and Safety Committees.
  • Attend school safety meetings and be a resource on school safety and security issues for building employees.
  • Serve on the building level, School Building Response Team.
  • Develop plans and strategies for building security, crime and violence prevention, safety planning and employee training.
  • Participate in school incident investigations.
  • Respond to all school emergencies as part of the building’s Emergency Response Plan.
  • Coordinate annual school safety multi-hazard training for students and employees. Multi-hazard training shall include crisis intervention, emergency response and management.
  • Employees and students shall receive annual training and drill practice on protocols for bomb threats, evacuation, sheltering, lock-down, relocate to hallway, fire emergency, bus drills, and appropriate violence prevention strategies.
  • Designate procedure for informing substitute teaching and non-teaching employees of school safety protocols.
  • Comply and encourage compliance with all school safety and security policies and procedures established by the Board of Education.
  • Attend professional development activities on school safety and violence prevention.
  • The school safety officers and campus safety monitors will not be involved in administering school discipline. This is the responsibility of the building administration.

All school safety personnel shall be provided with training on violence prevention and school safety. All training courses shall receive prior approval from the Superintendent.

Hiring and Screening of School Personnel

The following hiring and screening practices are followed for the hiring of all personnel:

Fingerprinting and Criminal Background Checks:

For all employees hired by the school district, the district completes a fingerprinting and criminal background check prior to appointment. No employee works in the district until fingerprint clearance is received. Employees include:

  • Any person receiving compensation for work from the school district
  • Any employee of a contracted service provider involved in direct student contact
  • Any worker assigned to a school under a public assistance employment program (includes part-time employees and substitutes).
Reference Checks

References are thoroughly checked prior to extending an employment offer.

  • Reference check forms are used for instructional, non-instructional and transportation personnel.
  • Reference checks are completed and reviewed by the administrative team along with the application.
  • Prior to making a job offer to a prospective employee, the following mandatory questions are asked during reference checks with immediate and/or past supervisors:
  • Do you have knowledge of any violations of safety or security by (prospective employee) related to students, employees or others?
  • Why did (prospective employee) leave your employment? Or, do you know why (prospective employee) is leaving your employment?
  • Would you rehire (prospective employee)? If no, why not?

B. Early Detection of Potentially Violent Behaviors

The District has implemented policies and procedures related to the early detection of potentially violent behaviors. Each building principal is responsible for the dissemination of informative materials regarding the early detection of potentially violent behaviors to employees and parents each school year. In addition, employees shall receive training on the District’s Code-of-Conduct and awareness training on violent behaviors, to be conducted or coordinated by the District Superintendent.

C. Hazard Identification

(Note: Below chart does not include adult education staff/students or non-school programs.)

The following sites have the potential for internal or external emergency situations:


  • Cohoes High School
    Telephone: 518-237-9100
    Principal: Laura Tarlo
    Employees: 109
    Students: 538
    Transportation Requirement: 10 buses
  • Cohoes Middle School
    Telephone: 518-237-4131
    Principal: Kyle McFarland
    Employees: 83
    Students: 452
    Transportation Requirement: 8 buses
  • Page Avenue
    Telephone: 518-237-0990
    Employees: 25
    Students: 0
    Transportation Requirement: 0
  • Van Schaick
    Telephone: 518-237-2828
    Principal: Jacqueline DeChiaro
    Employees: 42
    Students: 169
    Transportation Requirement: 4 buses
  • Harmony Hill
    Telephone: 518-233-1900
    Principal: Mark Perry
    Employees: 88
    Students: 451
    Transportation Requirement: 9 buses
  • Abram Lansing
    Telephone: 518-237-5044
    Principal: Clifford Bird
    Employees: 62
    Students: 374
    Transportation Requirement: 7 buses

The buildings and grounds associated with each of these facilities have the potential for a main campus or Building Level emergency or incident.

The following facilities and natural hazards that are proximate to the Cohoes City School District have been identified as having a potential for presenting emergencies that could affect the district:

  • CSX Railroad
  • Hudson River
  • Norlite Corporation
  • Route I-787
  • Union Carbide (Waterford)
  • Mohawk Paper
  • Soft-Tex Manufacturing

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A. Notification and Activation (Internal and External Communications)

  • In cases of a seriously violent incident, the District would use the procedure listed below to meet the requirements for notification and activation. A serious violent incident is an incident of violent criminal conduct that is, or appears to be, life threatening and warrants the evacuation of students and employees because of an imminent threat to their safety or health. This includes, but is not limited to, the use or threatened use of a firearm, explosive, bomb, incendiary device, chemical, or biological weapons, knives or other dangerous instrument capable of causing death or serious injury, riots, hostage-taking, or kidnapping.

Communications systems are:


    • Teachers and building employees – public address system
    • Students – public address system and verbally from supervising teachers
    • Superintendent – phone or radio if necessary by principals secretary or designee
    • Building and Grounds – phone or radio if necessary by principals secretary or designee
    • Board of Education – phone or email


    • State police/Cohoes police – 911
    • Town P.D. – 911
    • Sheriff’s Office – 911
    • Fire Department – 911
    • Parents – District website and Parent Square
    • News media – Superintendent of schools/Communication Specialist will contact: Spectrum News, The Record, The Times Union, WFLY – Fly 92, WGA – 810 WGY, WNYT TV, WRGB TV, WRVE – the River, WTEN TV, WYJB – B95.5, and WXXA TV
  • The Superintendent of Schools would be responsible for conveying emergency information to educational facilities within the Cohoes City School District. The Superintendent would take appropriate steps to secure the following information about each educational agency within the district: number of students, number of employees, transportation requirements associated with the evacuation of each facility; and the business and home telephone numbers of key officials of each agency. Such information would be updated at least annually by the Superintendent. Each such agency would report material changes to such data to the Superintendent of Schools, in writing, within seven (7) days of such change. Currently, there are no non-public schools within the Cohoes City School District.
  • Information will be provided to parents, guardians or persons in parental relation to the students in the event of a violent incident or an early dismissal through the use of telephone by employees at the building level using the student/parent directory and/or local and regional radio and TV stations. These are the same stations that are used to announce official school delays or closings. This information is provided to parents through the School District website and building handbooks and ParentSquare. Additionally, if an event occurs at the school district where students cannot be released immediately, a parent/community public information center may be established at: Cohoes Senior Center 10, Cayuga Plaza, Cohoes

In the event that this public information center is established, parents and community members are not to report to the school district where a building may be in crisis, but rather gather at the Cohoes Senior Center where regular public information statements will be made by the Superintendent or designee.

B. Situational Responses – Multi-Hazard Response and Response Protocols

Staff cooperation is critical when an act of violence occurs. In the event of a criminal act, bomb threat, civil disturbance, intrusion, hostage taking, kidnapping or other threatening event, staff response may include:

  1. Verbal instructions to cease the behavior.
  2. Call for assistance from other staff.
  3. Verbal instructions to follow classroom emergency procedures based on the main office’s instruction over the public address system.
  4. Call law enforcement and other necessary emergency response agencies.
  5. Removal of any onlookers that could aggravate the situation.
  6. Not invading the space of the individual(s) involved.
  7. Removal of any potentially dangerous weapons or objects.
  8. Physical restraint if other actions do not stop the violence.

In the event of a violent incident, the following policies and procedures are to be followed at the District level:

  • The Superintendent will ensure the building-level team has adequate resources to respond to the emergency.
  • The Superintendent will develop a public information strategy to communicate necessary information to the media, parents and staff.
  • The District Office will notify the Assistant Superintendent for Educational Services who is the leader of the district’s Crisis Intervention Team of the event.
  • The Superintendent will notify Board of Education members of the incident.
  • The Superintendent will notify the BOCES District Superintendent that the school’s emergency plan has been activated and file any necessary information with the State Education Department (for example, school bomb threat data cards).

In the event of a violent incident, the following policies and procedures are to be followed at the school building level:

  • Student reports an incident to an adult or adult observes an incident.
  • Adult takes appropriate action as necessary to respond to the incident.
  • A written referral is forwarded to the building principal.
  • School counselor, social worker, psychologist and nurse are involved when necessary.
  • Building principal will conference with the student(s) involved to determine the problems/issues.
  • If parental notification is necessary, building principal will contact the parent(s) and may arrange a parent conference.
  • Appropriate discipline will be administered following the District Code of Conduct and incident reported to the State Education Department when appropriate.

Follow-up of the violent incident should include:

  • Investigation of the incident by building principal and law enforcement, as necessary.
  • Preparation of written accounts of the incident by all involved.
  • Review of written accounts by the building principal for any disparities.
  • Appropriate disciplinary action according to the code of conduct.
  • Review of the entire incident by administration for future planning.
    • What happened?
    • Where did it happen?
    • When did it happen?
    • Why did it happen?
    • How did it happen?
    • How many individuals were involved?
    • Are the individuals associated with a group?
    • How could the incident have been prevented?
    • What warning signs were missed?
    • What can we do to prevent a future incident?
  • Counseling or other needed support for the victim(s), other students and staff involved in the incident.
  • Necessary reporting and parental notification.

Each school’s Building Level plan lists building specific response actions to criminal acts, bomb threats, civil disturbance, intrusion, hostage taking, kidnapping, as well as technological and natural disasters.

Response Protocols

The Cohoes City School District has a comprehensive multi-hazard Emergency Response Plan. Such plan is updated annually. Copies of the plan are available in each Principal’s Office as well as in the Superintendent’s Office and the Business Office. Elements of the plan include:

  • Chain of Command
  • Other Relevant Parties
  • Emergency Planning Committee
  • Emergency Telephone Numbers
  • Telephone Tree
  • First Aid List
  • Fleet List
  • A list of hazardous incidents and a response plan for each (e.g. bomb threat, hostage, intruder, natural disaster, structural failure, et. al.)

Chain of Command

  • Peggy O’Shea, Superintendent
  • Dan Martinelli, Assistant Superintendent
  • Stacy Mackey, School Business Official
  • Laura Tarlo, High School Principal
  • Erin Hill, Director of Special Programs
  • Raychel Marcil – Director of MTSS

Arrangements for Obtaining Emergency Assistance from Local Government

The administration shall use the following process in making arrangements for obtaining assistance during emergencies from emergency services organizations and local government agencies:

  • Superintendent/Designee in an emergency contacts dispatch point or 911 center for fire or EMS response.
  • Superintendent/Designee contacts highest-ranking local government official for notification and/or assistance.

Procedures for Obtaining Advice and Assistance from Local Government Officials

The Administration shall use the following protocol for obtaining advice and assistance from local government officials including the county or city officials responsible for implementation of Article 2-B of the Executive Law:

  • Superintendent/Designee in an emergency will contact emergency management coordinator and/or the highest ranking local government official for obtaining advice and assistance.
  • The District has identified resources for an emergency from the following agencies: (examples include the Red Cross, fire department, police, private industry, private individuals, religious organizations and others).

District Resources Available for Use in an Emergency

The Cohoes City School District has created a comprehensive list of resources available during an emergency, including fuel sources, communications, food service capability, maintenance vehicle lists, and medical supplies and AED, CPR and First Aid trained staff. Specific information in each of these categories is contained in the building-level plans.

Procedures to Coordinate the Use of School District Resources and Staff   during Emergencies

The District shall use the following procedure to coordinate the use of school resources and manpower during emergencies:

  • The Building Principal of the affected facility shall contact the Superintendent or the District- wide Safety Team and request the necessary manpower or resources.
  • The Superintendent of Schools or the highest-ranking person in the chain of command shall assess the request and allocate personnel and resources as necessary.

Protective Action Options

The Cohoes City School District shall follow the following protocols in assessing the appropriate protective action option. The decision to cancel school, to dismiss early, shelter in place or evacuate, shall be made in cooperation with state and local emergency responders, as appropriate.

School Cancellation
  • Monitor any situation that may warrant a school cancellation – Superintendent/District Team.
  • Make determination – Superintendent.
  • Contact local media – Superintendent or Communication Specialist
School Delay
  • Monitor any situation that may warrant school delay – Building Administrators/ Superintendent/District Team.
  • If conditions warrant, delay opening of school.
  • Contact Transportation Supervisor to coordinate transportation issues.
  • Contact local media to inform parents of delayed opening.
  • Set up information center so that parents may make inquiries as to situation.
  • Provide for safety and security of employees and students who do come to school.
Early Dismissal
  • Monitor situation – Superintendent/District Team.
  • If conditions warrant, close school – Superintendent.
  • Contact Transportation Supervisor to arrange transportation.
  • Contact local media to inform parents of early dismissal.
  • Set up an information center so that parents may make inquiries as to the situation.
  • Retain appropriate district personnel until all students have been returned home.
Evacuation (before, during and after school hours, including security during evacuation and evacuation routes)
  • Determine the level of threat – Superintendent.
  • Contact Transportation Supervisor to arrange transportation – Superintendent or Designee.
  • Clear all evacuation routes and sites prior to evacuation.
  • Evacuate all employees and students to pre-arranged evacuation sites.
  • Account for all students and employees. Report any missing employees or students to Building Principal.
  • Make determination regarding early dismissal – Superintendent or Designee.
  • If determination was made to dismiss early, contact local media to inform parents of early dismissal.
  • Ensure adult supervision or continued school supervision/security.
  • Set up an information center so that parents may make inquiries as to the situation.
  • Retain appropriate district personnel until all students have been returned home.
 Sheltering Sites (internal and external)
  • Determine the level of threat – Superintendent/Incident Commander /Designee.
  • Determine location of sheltering depending on nature of incident.
  • Account for all students and employees. Report any missing employees or student to designee.
  • Determine other occupants in the building.
  • Make appropriate arrangements for human needs.
  • Take appropriate safety precautions.
  • Establish a public information officer to provide information and current status to the situation to parents and other inquiring parties.
  • Retain appropriate district personnel until all students have been returned home.

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Section IV: Recovery

A. Central Administration Support for Buildings

The Cohoes City School District District-wide Team will support the Building-level Emergency Response Team and the Crisis/Post-Incident Response Teams in affected schools.

B. Disaster Mental Health Services

The district office shall assist in the coordination of Disaster Mental Health Resources, in support of the Post-Incident Response Teams in the affected schools.

Appendix 1 – Listing of all school buildings covered by the District

Cohoes City School District Office
21 Page Avenue, Cohoes, NY 12047
Peggy O’Shea, Superintendent

Cohoes High School
1 Tiger Circle, Cohoes, NY 12047
Laura Tarlo, Principal

Cohoes Middle School
7 Bevan Street, Cohoes, NY 12047
Kyle McFarland

Van Schaick Grade School
150 Continental Avenue, Cohoes, NY 12047
Jacqueline DeChiaro, Principal

Harmony Hill Elementary School
Madeline K. Hickey Way, Cohoes, NY 12047
Mark Perry, Principal

Abram Lansing Elementary
26 James Street, Cohoes, NY 12047
Clifford Bird, Principal

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Appendix 2 – The Early Detection of Potentially Violent Behaviors: A Guide for Families and Communities

Early Warning Signs

It is not always possible to predict behavior that will lead to violence. In some situations, and for some youth, different combinations of events, behaviors, and emotions may lead to aggressive rage or violent behavior toward self or others. School personnel and students, as well as parents, are often in a good position to observe these early warning signs.

None of these signs alone are sufficient for predicting aggression and violence. Moreover, it is inappropriate–and potentially harmful–to use the early warning signs as a checklist against which to match individual children. Rather, the warning signs are offered only as an aid in identifying and referring children who may need help. A good rule of thumb is to assume that these warning signs, especially when they are presented in combination, indicate a need for further analysis to determine an appropriate intervention.

The information that follows and such other information as may be appropriate concerning Early Warning shall be made available to all employees in a form to be determined by the Superintendent. It is the policy of the Cohoes City School District that employees and students use the early warning signs only for identification and referral purposes. Trained professionals should make diagnoses in consultation with the child’s parents or guardian.

The following early warning signs are cited by the United States Department of Education in its publication entitled Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools and is presented with the following qualifications: They are not equally significant and they are not presented in order of seriousness.

They include:

  • Social Withdrawal – In some situations, gradual and eventually complete withdrawal from social contacts can be an important indicator of a troubled child. The withdrawal often stems from feelings of depression, rejection, persecution, unworthiness, and lack of confidence.
  • Excessive Feelings of Isolation and Being Alone – Research has shown that the majority of children who are isolated and appear to be friendless are not violent. In fact, these feelings are sometimes characteristic of children and youth who may be troubled, withdrawn, or have internal issues that hinder development of social affiliations. However, research also has shown that in some cases feelings of isolation and not having friends are associated with children who behave aggressively and violently.
  • Excessive Feelings of Rejection – In the process of growing up, and in the course of adolescent development, many young people experience emotionally painful rejection. Children who are troubled often are isolated from their mentally healthy peers. Their responses to rejection will depend on many background factors. Without support, they may be at risk of expressing their emotional distress in negative ways-including violence. Some aggressive children who are rejected by non-aggressive peers seek out aggressive friends who, in turn, reinforce their violent tendencies.
  • Being a Victim of Violence – Children who are victims of violence-including physical or sexual abuse-in the community, at school, or at home are sometimes at risk themselves of becoming violent toward themselves or others.
  • Feelings of Being Picked On and Persecuted – The youth who feels constantly picked on, teased, bullied, singled out for ridicule and humiliated at home or at school may initially withdraw socially. If not given adequate support in addressing these feelings, some children may vent them in inappropriate ways-including possible aggression or violence.
  • Low School Interest and Poor Academic Performance – Poor school achievement can be the result of many factors. It is important to consider whether there is a drastic change in performance and/or poor performance becomes a chronic condition that limits the child’s capacity to learn. In some situations, such as when the low achiever feels frustrated, unworthy, chastised, and denigrated acting out and aggressive behaviors may occur. It is important to assess the emotional and cognitive reasons for the academic performance change to determine the true nature of the problem.
  • Expression of Violence in Writings and Drawings – Children and youth often express their thoughts, feelings, desires, and intentions in their drawings and in stories, poetry, and other written expressive forms. Many children produce work about violent themes that for the most part is harmless when taken in context. However, an overrepresentation of violence in writings and drawings that is directed at specific individuals (family members, peers, other adults) consistently over time, may signal emotional problems and the potential for violence. Because there is a real danger in misdiagnosing such a sign, it is important to seek the guidance of a qualified professional such as a school psychologist, counselor, or other mental health specialist to determine its meaning.
  • Uncontrolled Anger – Everyone gets angry; anger is a natural emotion. However, anger that is expressed frequently and intensely in response to minor irritants may signal potential violent behavior toward self or others.
  • Patterns of Impulsive and Chronic Hitting, Intimidating and Bullying Behaviors – Children often engage in acts of shoving and mild aggression; however, some mildly aggressive behaviors such as constant hitting and bullying of others which occur early in children’s lives, if left unattended, might later escalate into more serious behaviors.
  • History of Discipline Problems – Chronic behavior and disciplinary problems both in school and at home may suggest that underlying emotional needs are not being met. These unmet needs may be manifested in acting out and aggressive behaviors. These problems may set the stage for the child to violate norms and rules, defy authority, disengage from school, and engage in aggressive behaviors with other children and adults.
  • Past History of Violent and Aggressive Behavior – Unless provided with support and counseling, a youth who has a history of aggressive or violent behavior is likely to repeat those behaviors. Aggressive and violent acts may be directed toward other individuals, be expressed in cruelty to animals or include fire setting. Youths who show an early pattern of antisocial behavior frequently and across multiple settings are particularly at risk for future aggressive and antisocial behavior. Similarly, youth who engage in overt behaviors such as bullying, generalized aggression and defiance, and covert behaviors such as stealing, vandalism, lying, cheating and fire setting also are at risk for more serious aggressive behavior. Research suggests that age of onset may be a key factor in interpreting early warning signs. For example, children who engage in aggression and drug abuse at an early age (before age 12) are more likely to show violence later on than are children who begin such behavior at an older age. In the presence of such signs it is important to review the child’s history with behavioral experts and seek parents’ observations and insights.
  • Intolerance for Differences and Prejudicial Attitudes – All children have likes and dislikes. However, an intense prejudice toward others based on racial, ethnic, religious, language, gender, sexual orientation, ability, and physical appearance when coupled with other factors may lead to violent assaults against those who are perceived to be different. Membership in hate groups or the willingness to victimize individuals with disabilities or health problems also should be treated as early warning signs.
  • Drug Use and Alcohol Use – Apart from being unhealthy behaviors, drug use and alcohol use reduces self-control and exposes children and youth to violence, either as perpetrators, as victims, or both.
  • Affiliation with Gangs – Gangs that support anti-social values and behaviors–including extortion, intimidation, and acts of violence toward other students cause fear and stress among other students. Youth who are influenced by these groups those who emulate and copy their behavior, as well as those who become affiliated with them may adopt these values and act in violent or aggressive ways in certain situations. Gang related violence and turf battles are common occurrences tied to the use of drugs that often result in injury and/or death.
  • Inappropriate Access, Possession and Use of Firearms – Children and youth who inappropriately possess or have access to firearms can have an increased risk for violence. Research shows that such youngsters also have a higher probability of becoming victims. Families can reduce inappropriate access and use by restricting, monitoring, and supervising children’s access to firearms and other weapons. Children who have a history of aggression, impulsiveness, or other emotional problems should not have access to firearms and other weapons.
  • Serious Threats of Violence – Idle threats are a common response to frustration. Alternatively, one of the most reliable indicators that a youth is likely to commit a dangerous act toward self or others is a detailed and specific threat to use violence. Recent incidents across the country clearly indicate that threats to commit violence against oneself or others should be taken very seriously. Steps must be taken to understand the nature of these threats and to prevent them from being carried out.

Identifying and Responding to Imminent Warning Signs

Unlike early warning signs, imminent warning signs indicate that a student is very close to behaving in a way that is potentially dangerous to self and/or to others. Imminent warning signs require an immediate response.

No single warning sign can predict that a dangerous act will occur. Rather, imminent warning signs usually are presented as a sequence of overt, serious, hostile behaviors or threats directed at peers, employees, or other individuals. Usually, imminent warning signs are evident to more than one employee member–as well as to the child’s family.

Imminent warning signs may include:

  • Serious physical fighting with peers or family members.
  • Severe destruction of property.
  • Severe rage for seemingly minor reasons.
  • Detailed threats of lethal violence.
  • Possession and/or use of firearms and other weapons.
  • Other self-injurious behaviors or threats of suicide.

Threat Assessment

A threat is an expression of intent to do harm or act out violently against someone or something. A threat can be written, spoken, or symbolic – as in motioning with one’s hands as though shooting or strangling another person. There are principally four types of threats – direct, indirect, veiled and conditional.

Threats are made for a variety of reasons: as a warning signal, a reaction to fear of punishment, anxiety, demand for attention or as retribution for a perceived or actual slight or affront. Threats may be intended to taunt, intimidate, assert power, punish, manipulate, coerce, frighten, terrorize, compel desired behavior, to strike back for an injury, injustice or slight; to be disruptive, to challenge authority or to protect oneself.

Individuals who make threats normally manifest other behaviors or emotions that are indicative of a problem. These can include: signs of depression, prolonged brooding, evidence of frustration or disappointment; fantasies of destruction or revenge in conversations, writings, drawings or other actions; expressions of intense love, fear, rage, revenge, excitement or pronounced desire for recognition. Use of alcohol or drugs can be an aggravating factor, as can a romantic breakup, failing grades or conflicts with parents or friends.

Personality Traits

Personality traits and behaviors that should be considered in assessing the likelihood of a student carrying out a threat include:

  • A student intentionally or unintentionally revealing clues to feelings, thoughts, fantasies, attitudes, or intentions that may signal an impending violent act;
  • Low tolerance of frustration, easily hurt, insulted, angered by real or perceived injustices;
  • Poor coping skills, demonstrating little ability to deal with frustration,        criticism, disappointment, failure, rejection or humiliation;
  • Lack of resiliency, is unable to bounce back from frustrating and disappointing experiences; failed love relationships, cannot accept or comes to term with humiliation or rejection;
  • Injustice collector, nurses resentment over real or perceived injustices, will not forgive or forget those who they believe are responsible;
  • Depression manifested by lethargy, physical fatigue, morose or dark outlook on life, malaise, lack of interest in activities once enjoyed, unpredictable anger, generalized or excessive hatred to others, hopelessness about the future, psychomotor agitation, restlessness, inattention, sleep and eating disorders;
  • Narcissism, self-centered, lacking insight to the needs/feelings of others, blames others for failure and disappointment, may embrace the role of victim, displays signs of paranoia, self- importance or grandiosity, masking feelings of unworthiness, notably thick or thin skinned;
  • Alienation, feels different or estranged from others, more than being a loner, involves feelings of isolation, sadness, loneliness, not belonging or fitting in;
  • Dehumanizes others, fails to see others as humans, sees them as objects to be thwarted;
  • Lacks empathy, demonstrates inability to understand feelings of others, may ridicule displays of emotion as weak or stupid;
  • Exaggerated sense of entitlement, has a sense of being superior and constantly expects special treatment and consideration;
  • Attitude of superiority, has a sense of being superior to others, smarter, more creative, talented, experienced, more worldly;
  • Exaggerated/pathological need for attention, positive or negative, regardless of the circumstances;
  • Externalizes blame, consistently refuses to take responsibility for own actions, blames others, often seems impervious to rational argument and common sense;
  • Masks low self-esteem, may display arrogance, self-glorifying attitude, avoids high visibility or involvement, may be considered a “non-entity” by peers:
  • Anger management problems, manifested by consistent temper tantrums, melodramatic displays, brooding, sulking, seething silence, reacts out of proportion to cause, may direct anger to those who have no connection to triggering incident;
  • Intolerance, racial, ethnic, religious and other, displays symbols and slogans of intolerance on self or possessions;
  • Inappropriate humor, macabre, insulting, belittling, or mean.
  • Attempts to manipulate others, attempts to con and manipulate to win trust so others will rationalize aberrant behavior;
  • Lack of trust, is untrusting and suspicious of the motives and intentions of others, may approach clinically paranoid state;
  • Closed social group, introverted, with acquaintances rather than friends, may associate only with a single small group to the exclusion of others;
  • Manifests a dramatic change in behavior, academic performance, disobedience of school rules, schedules, dress codes etc.
  • Rigid and opinionated, judgmental and cynical, strong opinions on topics about which little knowledge is possessed, disregards facts, logic and reasoning;
  • Demonstrates unusual interest in sensational violence;
  • Fascination with violence-filled entertainment, movies, TV, computer games, music videos, printed material, inordinate amount of time with violent computer games and websites involving violence weapons and disturbing objects;
  • Has negative role models, drawn to negative, inappropriate role models, Hitler, Satan or others associated with violence and destruction;
  • Manifests behavior that is relevant to carrying out a threat, spends inordinate amount of time practicing with firearms, on violent websites, begins excluding normal pursuits such as homework, classwork, time with friends.

Family Dynamics

Family dynamics that should be considered in assessing the likelihood of a student carrying out a threat include:

  • Turbulent parent/child relationship, relationship is particularly difficult, can be uniquely evident following recent or multiple moves, loss of parent, addition of step-parent, dismisses parents’ role in their life, evidence of violence in the home;
  • Acceptance of pathological behavior, parents do not react to behavior that most would find disturbing’ parents appear unable to recognize or acknowledge problems in their children, respond quite defensively to real or perceived criticism of child, parents appear unconcerned about, minimize or reject reports of inappropriate behavior by child;
  • Access to weapons, family keeps guns, weapons, explosives materials in the home and accessible to the children, weapons treated carelessly, without normal safety precautions, parent or role model may handle weapons irresponsibly or use as device for intimidation;
  • Lack of family intimacy or closeness;
  • Student “rules the roost,” few limits set for children, parents rtegularly submit to child’s demands, student insists on inordinate degree of privacy, parents have little information about student activities, school life, friends, or other relationships.
  • No limits or monitoring of TV or Internet, parents do not supervise, limit or monitor TV, Internet, computer use or access.

School Dynamics

School dynamics that should be considered in assessing the likelihood of a student carrying out a threat include:

  •  Student attachment to school, student appears detached from school, other students, teachers, and school activities;
  • Tolerance for disrespectful behavior, school does little to prevent or address disrespectful behavior between students, bullying is part of the school culture, school authorities are oblivious to bullying, little or no intervention by school authorities, school atmosphere promotes racial or class divisions, allows them to remain unchallenged;
  • Inequitable discipline, discipline is inequitably applied or is perceived as such by students or employees;
  • Inflexible culture, official and unofficial patterns of behavior, values and relationships among students, teachers and administrators are static, unyielding and insensitive to changes in society and the changing needs of newer students;
  • Pecking order among students, certain groups have more prestige and respect – both officially and unofficially by students and school officials;
  • Code of silence, prevails among students, little trust between students and employees;
  • Unsupervised computer access, access is unsupervised and unmonitored, students are able to play violent games, explore inappropriate websites, promote violent hate groups, give instruction in bomb making, etc.

Social Dynamics

Social dynamics that should be considered in assessing the likelihood of a student carrying out a threat include:

  • Media, entertainment and technology, easy, unmonitored access to media, entertainment and Internet sites with violent themes and images;
  • Peer groups, intense and extensive involvement with a group that shares fascination with violence or extremist beliefs;
  • Drugs and alcohol, knowledge of students’ use of drugs or alcohol or changes in such use is important;
  • Outside interests, outside interests of students are important to note as they can mitigate or increase the school’s level of concern in assessing a threat;
  • Copycat effect, school shooting and other violent incidents that receive intense media attention can generate threats or copycat violence elsewhere, school employees should be highly vigilant in then aftermath of such incidents.

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Appendix 3 – Eleven Questions to Guide Data Collection in a Threat Assessment Inquiry

DOE and United States Secret Service Threat Assessment Guide: Eleven Key Areas

1) What are the student’s motives and goals?

  • What motivated the student to make the statement or take action that caused him/her to come to attention?
  • Does the situation or circumstance that led to these statements or actions still exist?
  • Does the student have a major grievance or grudge? Against whom?
  • What efforts have been made to resolve the problem and what has been the result? Does the potential attacker feel that any part of the problem is resolved or see any alternatives?

2) Has the student shown inappropriate interest in any of the following?

  • School attacks or attackers; weapons (including recent acquisition of any relevant weapon); incidents of mass violence (terrorism, workplace violence, mass murders). Ask about Columbine, Santana, etc.

3) Have there been any communications suggesting ideas or intent to attack?

  •  What if anything has the student communicated to someone else (targets, friends, other students, teachers, family, others) or written in a diary, journal, or website concerning his/her ideas and/or intentions?
  • Have friends been alerted or “warned away”?

4) Has the student engaged in attack-related behaviors? These behaviors might include:

  • Developing an attack or plan
  • Making efforts to acquire or practice with weapons
  • Casing or checking out, possible sites and areas for an attack
  • Rehearsing attacks or ambushes

5) Is the student’s conversation and “story” consistent with his or her actions?

  • Does information from collateral interviews and form the student’s own behavior confirm or dispute what the student says is going on?

6) Does the student have the capacity to carry out an act of targeted violence?

  • How organized is the student’s thinking and behavior?
  • Does the student have the means; e.g., access to a weapon, to carry out an attack?

7) Is the student experiencing hopelessness, desperation and/or despair?

  • Is there information to suggest that the student is experiencing desperation and/or despair?
  • Has the student experienced a recent failure, loss and/or loss of status?
  • Is the student known to be having difficulty coping with a stressful event?
  • Is the student now, or has the student ever been, suicidal or “accident-prone”?
  • Has the student engaged in behavior that suggests that he or she has considered ending their life?

8) Does the student have a trusting relationship with at least one responsible adult?

  •  Does the student have at least one relationship with an adult where the student feels that he or she can confide in the adult and believes that the adult will listen without judging or jumping to conclusions? (Students with trusting relationships with adults may be directed away from violence and despair and toward hope? Is the student emotionally connected to – or disconnected from –other students?
  • Has the student previously come to someone’s attention or raised concern in a way that suggested he or she needs intervention or supportive services?

9) Are other people concerned about the student’s potential for violence?

  • Are those who know the student concerned that he or she might take action based on violent ideas or plans?
  • Are those who know the student concerned about a specific target?
  • Have those who know the student witnessed recent changes or escalations in mood or behavior?

10) What circumstances might affect the likelihood of an attack?

  • What factors in the students’ life and/or environment might increase or decrease the likelihood that the student will attempt to mount an attack at school?
  • What is the response of other persons who know about the student’s ideas or plan to mount an attack? (Do those who know about the student’s ideas actively discourage the student from acting violently, encourage the student to attack, deny the possibility of violence, passively collude with an attack, etc.?

11) Does the student see violence as an acceptable – or desirable – or the only – way to solve problems?

  • Does the setting around the student (friends, fellow students, parents, teachers, adults) explicitly or implicitly support or endorse violence as a way of resolving problems or disputes?
  • Has the student been “dared” by others to engage in an act of violence?

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Appendix 4 – Communicable Disease – Pandemic Continuity of Operations Plan

Communicable Disease – Pandemic Continuity of Operations Plan

This Continuity of Operations Plan (plan) has been developed to meet the requirements of subsection (2)(m) of Education Law §2801-a which requires public employers to prepare a plan for the continuation of operations in the event that the Governor declares a public health emergency involving a communicable disease. This plan is built upon the components of the District-Wide School Safety and the Building-Level Emergency Response Plan(s). The Plan includes elements of the District’s COVID-19 Reopening Plan and will be updated regularly to reflect current guidance and best practices. The District- Wide School Safety Team assumes responsibility for development and compliance with all provisions of this plan and implementation at the building level through the Building-Level Emergency Response Team.

The Cohoes City School District will work closely with the Albany County Department of Health to determine the need for activation of this plan. The district will report suspected and confirmed cases of communicable diseases (e.g., influenza, coronavirus, etc.) on the monthly Communicable Disease Report, (DMS-485.7/93; HE-112.4/81) and submit it to the local health department. Depending on the severity of the disease, the district may be required to report information more frequently and in another format (i.e., daily for COVID-19).

The local health department will monitor county-wide communicable disease cases and inform school districts as to appropriate actions.

When this plan is activated, the District-Wide School Safety Team may invite additional people to the meetings to aid in the planning efforts including the

  • District Medical Director
  • Director of Technology Operations
  • Food Service Director
  • Communications Specialist

Communication with parents, students, staff, and the school community is important throughout a pandemic outbreak. Communication methods will include postings to the district website, Parent Square, Schoology, and social media. The District Communications Specialist has been designated to coordinate this effort. Communications will work closely with the Director of Technology Operations to ensure proper functioning of all communication systems.

Essential Positions/Titles

The district has developed this plan to prepare for any future government ordered shutdowns that may occur, similar to the coronavirus shutdown in the spring of 2020. Attachment 1 includes a list of essential positions that would be required to be on-site or in district to continue to function as opposed to those positions that could work remotely. The list includes:

Title – a list of positions/titles considered essential (i.e., could not work remotely) in the event of a state-ordered reduction of in-person workforce.

Description – brief description of job function.

Justification – brief description of critical responsibilities that could not be provided remotely.

Work Shift – brief description of how work shifts of essential employees and/or contractors will be staggered in order to reduce overcrowding in the district.

Protocol – how precise hours and work locations, including off-site visits, will be documented for essential employees and contractors.

Working/Learning Remotely

The District will assess the technology needs of all non-essential employees and contractors in order to enable telecommuting.

Options for assessing district needs include stakeholder meetings or surveys to determine:

  • Who will need devices and/or peripherals at home,
  • What programs will need to be added to these devices, and
  • The availability of viable existing at-home Internet service.

This information will be used to determine what items need to be purchased, which programs need to be installed on devices and if appropriate Internet accessibility provided to those in need.

Reducing Risk

Depending on the exact nature of the communicable disease and its impact, the district is prepared to use the strategies below to reduce traffic congestion and maintain social distancing:

  • Limiting building occupancy to 25%, 50% or 75% of capacity or the maximum allowable by state or local guidance.
  • Forming employee work shift cohorts to limit potential contacts.
  • Limiting employee travel within the building and/or between buildings.
  • Limiting restroom usage to specific work areas.
  • Staggering arrival and dismissal times.
  • Alternating work-days or work weeks.
  • Limiting or eliminating visitors to the building.

The district may need to include additional strategies based on updated federal, state, and local guidance.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and Face Coverings

The district will procure a six-month supply of face coverings and PPE required for essential work tasks. Disposable PPE will be provided in quantities of at least two pieces per work day.

PPE Type: N-95 Task/Role: R.N.’s/L.P.N.’s; Cleaners/Custodians (based on disinfectants used)

PPE Type: Face Shields Task/Role: R.N.’s/L.P.N.’s Special Education teachers/staff as needed

PPE Type:  Gowns Task/Role: R.N.’s/L.P.N.’s; Special Education teachers/staff as needed.

PPE Type: Gloves  Task/Role: R.N.’s/L.P.N.’s; Special Education teachers/staff as needed; Cleaners/Custodians; Maintenance/Mechanics

Those individuals that are required to wear N-95 respirators will be fit-tested and medically screened prior to use to ensure they are physically able to do so.

The use of cloth face coverings to reduce the spread of communicable diseases is important to the health and safety of faculty, staff and students. Cloth face coverings are meant to protect other people in case the wearer is unknowingly infected (asymptomatic) and are essential when physical distancing is difficult. Information will be provided to faculty, staff and students on proper use, removal, and cleaning of cloth face coverings. All faculty, staff and students will be encouraged to utilize their own personal face coverings but the district will secure and provide face coverings as needed.

PPE and face coverings will be stored in a manner which will prevent degradation. These supplies will be monitored to ensure integrity and track usage rates.

Continuity of Operations

Continuity of operations could be severely impacted by a loss of staff. The table below describes the procedures for maintaining essential functions and services by planning for backup personnel.



  • Have decision-making authority for the district.
  • Provides guidance on revising/developing district policies and develops procedures to reflect crisis responses
  • Work with bargaining units to develop the plan for emergency use of personnel in non- traditional functions and changes in the normal work-day such as alternate or reduced work hours, working from home, etc.

Responsible Parties

  • Superintendent
  • Assistant Superintendent
  • School Business Official
  • Director of Facilities
  • Director of Special Programs



  • Maintain overall function and facilities operation.
  • Review essential functions and responsibilities of back-up personnel.

Responsible Parties: Accounts Payable Clerk; Back Up: Buildings and Ground Secretary

Task: Monitor utilization of supplies, equipment, contracts, and provided services and adjust as necessary

Responsible Parties: Payroll: Payroll Clerk; Back Up: District Treasurer Accounts Payable



  • Keep the Central Office informed of staffing issues and of the point at which buildings can no longer be maintained.
  • Provided building administrators with procedures for maintaining essential building functions (e.g., HVAC system operation, alarms, security, etc.) along with a list of telephone numbers of outside companies and alternates for repair and maintenance of these systems.
  • Meet with staff and monitor their ability to maintain essential function.

Responsible party: Facilities Director; Back Up: School Business Official


  • Monitors time and attendance and ensures appropriate delegation of authority.

Responsible Party: Human Resources Secretary; Back Up: Duties as assigned to Accounts Payable Clerk, District Clerk and Secretary to the Superintendent and Assistant Superintendent



Implemented in the event of significant absences or school closure. Alternate learning strategies will include:

  • On-line instruction via Zoom, Google Meets and on-line resources
  • Communication modalities for assignment postings and follow-up: Schoology, Google classroom, ParentSquare, email and telephone. Postal Service; cell phone, cell phone mail, text messages; e-mail; automated notification systems; website postings
  • Hard copy of assignments if needed.


The District-Wide School Safety Team will meet to determine the need for activation of a pandemic response based on internal monitoring and correspondence with the local health department and other experts.

  • The Incident Command Structure at both the District and building level will be informed that the response effort has been These individuals will meet to discuss the plan’s activation and review responsibilities and communication procedures.
  • Communications will work closely with the Director of Technology Operations to re-test all communication systems to ensure proper function. The District-wide School Safety Team and Building-Level Emergency Response Teams will assist in this effort.
  • An alert will be sent to the school community upon activation of this plan. The communication will be based on the latest information from federal, state and local health authorities.
  • If the decision is made to close a school building, the district will notify the NYS Education Department and District Superintendent.

The district will assign a communicable disease safety coordinator for the district, whose responsibilities include continuous compliance with all aspects of the district’s reopening plan and any phased-in

reopening activities necessary to allow for operational issues to be resolved before activities return to normal or “new normal” levels. The coordinator shall be the main contact upon the identification of positive communicable disease cases and are responsible for subsequent communication. The district’s safety coordinator and/or their designee shall be responsible for answering questions from students, faculty, staff, and parents or legal guardians of students regarding the public health emergency and plans implemented by the school.

The school district has determined employee policies for available leave in the event of the need of an employee to receive testing, treatment, isolation, or quarantine. These policies are consistent with existing federal, state, or local law, including regarding sick leave or health information privacy.

Hand Hygiene

Faculty, staff, and students will be trained on proper hand hygiene. Information will be provided to parents and/or legal guardians on ways to reinforce hand hygiene at home. The district will provide stations around the school buildings:

  • For hand washing: soap, running water, and disposable paper
  • For hand sanitizing: an alcohol-based hand sanitizer containing at least 60% alcohol for areas where hand washing facilities may not be available or practical.
  • Accommodations for students who cannot use hand sanitizer will be

Communicable Disease Exposures

The district must be prepared for communicable disease outbreaks in their local communities and for individual exposure events to occur in their facilities, regardless of the level of community transmission. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) have provided recommendations for strategies to follow after an exposure:

  • Close off areas used by a sick person and not using these areas until after cleaning and disinfection has occurred;
  • Open outside doors and windows to increase air circulation in the
  • Wait at least 24 hours before cleaning and If waiting 24 hours is not feasible, wait as long as possible;
  • Clean and disinfect all areas used by the person suspected or confirmed to have a communicable disease, such as offices, classrooms, bathrooms, lockers, and common areas.
  • Once the area has been appropriately cleaned and disinfected it can be reopened for
  • Individuals without close or proximate contact with the person suspected or confirmed to have a communicable disease can return to the area and resume school activities immediately after cleaning and disinfection.
  • If more than seven days have passed since the person who is suspected or confirmed to have a communicable disease visited or used the facility, additional cleaning or disinfection is not necessary, but routine cleaning and disinfection should continue.

Contact Tracing

The district will notify the state and local health department immediately upon being informed of any positive communicable disease diagnostic test result by an individual within school facilities or on school grounds, including students, faculty, staff, and visitors to the district.

Districts may assist with contact tracing by:

  • Keeping accurate attendance records of students and staff members
  • Ensuring student schedules are up to date
  • Keeping a log of any visitor which includes date and time, and where in the school they visited
  • Assisting the local health departments in tracing all contacts of the individual in accordance with the protocol, training, and tools provided through the NYS Contact Tracing Program

The district, in consultation with the local health department, will determine what process will be followed when communicable disease cases are discovered in the school (e.g., how many individuals will be quarantined, closing of areas or classrooms, etc.).

Confidentiality must be maintained as required by federal and state laws and regulations. School staff should not try to determine who is to be excluded from school based on contact without guidance and direction from the local health department.

Returning after Illness

The district has established protocols and procedures, in consultation with the local health department(s), about the requirements for determining when individuals, particularly students, who screened positive for communicable disease symptoms can return to the in-person learning environment at school. This protocol includes:

  • Documentation from a health care provider following evaluation
  • Negative COVID-19 diagnostic test result
  • Symptom resolution, or if positive for a communicable disease, release from isolation

The district will refer to the NYSDOH’s “Pre-K to Gr 12 COVID-19 Toolkit” and other applicable guidance regarding protocols and policies for faculty, staff, and students seeking to return to work after a suspected or confirmed communicable disease case or after the faculty or staff member had close or proximate contact with a person with a communicable disease.

The district requires that individuals who were exposed to a communicable disease complete quarantine and have no symptoms before returning to in-person learning. The discharge of an individual from quarantine and return to school will be conducted in coordination with the local health department.


The district will ensure adherence to hygiene and cleaning and disinfection requirements as advised by the CDC and NYSDOH, including “Guidance for Cleaning and Disinfection – Public Spaces, Workplaces, Businesses, Schools and Homes” and other guidance, as applicable.

Attachment 2 describes cleaning and disinfection protocols and procedures for the district. Regular cleaning and disinfection of the facilities will occur, including more frequent cleaning and disinfection for high-risk and frequently touched surfaces. This will include desks and cafeteria tables, which will be cleaned and disinfected between each individual’s use. Cleaning and disinfection will be rigorous and ongoing and will occur at least daily, or more frequently as needed.

The district will ensure regular cleaning and disinfection of restrooms. Restrooms will be cleaned and disinfected more often depending on frequency of use.

Housing for Essential Employees

The school district, in coordination with the local health department, will determine when the emergency housing of essential workers is necessary. Essential workers who will be required to use emergency housing will be identified.


Re-establishing the normal school curriculum is essential to the recovery process and should occur as soon as possible. The district will

  • Work toward a smooth transition from the existing learning methods to the normal
  • Use the described communication methods to keep the school community aware of the transition
  • Work closely with the New York State Education Department to revise or amend the school calendar as deemed appropriate.
  • Evaluate all building operations for normal function and re-implement appropriate maintenance and cleaning procedures.

Each Building-Level Post-Incident Response Team will assess the emotional impact of the crisis on students and staff and make recommendations for appropriate intervention. The District-Wide School Safety Team and Building-Level Emergency Response Teams will meet to de-brief and determine lessons learned with input from all essential functions. The District-Wide School Safety Plan and Building-Level Emergency Response Plans will be updated accordingly.

Curriculum activities that may address the crisis will be developed and implemented.

Attachment 1 – Essential Positions

Title: Superintendent

Description: Responsible for the planning, operation, supervision and evaluation of the education programs, services, and facilities of the district

Justification: Oversees district day to day operations

Work Shift: Individual office

Protocol: When on-site:

  • Google calendar will be used to indicate times
  • Health assessment will be completed electronically or on paper

Title: Assistant Superintendent

Description:  Assists in the planning, operation, supervision and evaluation of the education programs, services, and facilities of the district

Justification: Professional Development, Curriculum Alignment, Technology Integration, Assessments Oversees district level/state data reporting

Work Shift: Individual office

Protocol: When on-site:

  • Google calendar will be used to indicate times
  • Health assessment will be completed electronically or on paper

Title: Confidential Executive Secretary to Superintendent and Assist Superintendent

Description: Assistant to the Superintendent and Assistant Superintendent

Justification: Completion of necessary educational and operational paperwork

Work Shift: 8:30 a.m. – 4 p.m. Work shift may vary as needed.

Protocol: When on-site:

  • Google calendar will be used to indicate times
  • Health assessment will be completed electronically or on paper

Title: Human Resources Secretary


  • Monitors time and attendance.
  • Tracks recruitment and staffing.
  • Assists with Labor Law compliance.
  • Benefits Administrator Tracks Professional Development.

Justification: Completion of necessary human resources paperwork

Work Shift: 8 a.m. – 3:30 p.m.

Protocol: When on-site:

  • Google calendar will be used to indicate times
  • Health assessment will be completed electronically or on paper

Title: School Business Official

  • Payroll
  • Purchasing
  • Mandated reporting
  • Compliance Matters
  • Budget/ Election

Description: Oversee the day-to-day operational departments of the district. Directs, supervises, and manages all financial management, budget, general accounting, payroll, accounts payable, financial reporting, and grant management activities and practices for the district.

Justification: Responsible for oversight of business office, school lunch department, buildings & grounds, and transportation departments

Work Shift: Individual office

Protocol: When on-site:

  • Google calendar will be used to indicate times
  • Health assessment will be completed electronically or on paper

Title: Director of Special Programs

Description: Responsible for the planning, operation, supervision and evaluation of in-district special education programs and is the liaison for out -of-district special education programming.

Justification: Oversees the day-to-day operation of special programs.

Work Shift: Individual office

Protocol: When on-site:

  • Google calendar will be used to indicate times
  • Health assessment will be completed electronically or on paper

Title: Assistant Director of Special Programs

Description: Assist in the planning, operation, supervision and evaluation of in-district special education programs grades K- 5 and is the liaison for Pre School Special Education Students (CPSE)

Justification: Assists in the day-to-day operations of special programs

Work Shift: Individual office

Protocol: When on-site:

  • Google calendar will be used to indicate times
  • Health assessment will be completed electronically or on paper

Title: Business Office Personnel


  • Processes purchases for the entire district.
  • Accounts payable.
  • Payroll, accounting entries and cash management.


  • Enters prints and processes all district purchase orders.
  • Issues district payment to vendors
  • Processes payroll for all employees of the district.
  • Maintains all district accounting records and is responsible for the day-to-day cash management of district funds.

Work Shift: Work shifts vary

  • Hours are between 7:30 a.m.- 4 p.m.
  • All desks are socially distanced

Protocol: When on-site:

Sign in sheets will be used to track times entering and leaving.

Health assessment will be completed electronically or on paper.

Title: Buildings and Grounds Supervisor

  • Maintenance & Grounds
  • Cleaners & Custodians
  • Head Custodian
  • Senior Typist


  • Oversees buildings and grounds employees.
  • Maintains the functioning of all district building systems (interior and exterior).
  • Cleans, disinfects, and supplies district buildings.
  • Removes snow and leaves, maintains lawns, and trims bushes/trees.


  • Daily building walkthroughs to determine if building systems are functioning properly
  • Cleaning/disinfection of buildings

Work Shift:

One person will be assigned to each area of a building so there is no overlap. Staggered shifts.

Protocol: When on-site

  • Google calendar will be used to indicate times (Supervisor)
  • Sign in sheets will be used to track times entering and leaving (Maintenance/Grounds, Cleaners & Custodians)
  • Health assessment will be completed electronically or on paper.

Title:  Food Service Director

Senior Typist

Description: Responsible for

  • Meal planning and ordering of food items.
  • Preparing breakfast and lunch meals to be provided to students.
  • Cleaning and sanitizing kitchen.

Justification: Ensures students receive breakfast and lunch each day whether in person or deliveries for remote learners. Food preparation needs to be performed in a DOH permitted facility.

Work Shift: 7 a.m. – 3 p.m. and varies as necessary.

Protocol: When on-site

  • Google calendar will be used to indicate times.
  • Health assessment will be completed electronically or on paper.

Title: Communications Specialist

Description: Develops and implements a program of planned and strategic two-way communication.

Responsible for information output, press releases and media requests, and social media.

Justification: Will come in to assist with various district needs as required.

Work Shift: Varies as necessary.

Protocol: When on-site

  • Google calendar will be used to indicate times.
  • Health assessment will be completed electronically or on paper.

Title: Director of Technology Operations

Description: Responsible for planning, purchasing, installing and maintaining physical technology systems.

Justification: Setup and distribution of technological devices to teachers, students and staff as needed. Troubleshooting technology difficulties

Work Shift: As deemed necessary.

Protocol: When on-site

  • Google calendar will be used to indicate times.
  • Health assessment will be completed electronically or on paper.

Title: Safety Officers

Description: Provides security for the district’s faculty, staff and students.

Justification: Will come in to assist with various district needs as required. Will help with organization of meals and technology that will be distributed to students.

Work Shift: As deemed necessary.

Protocol: When on-site

  • Google calendar will be used to indicate times.
  • Health assessment will be completed electronically or on paper.

Title: Nurses

Description: Provides technical assistance regarding health screenings, management of ill persons, isolation areas, and day-to- day school health issues. Communicates with Department of Health as necessary.

Justification:  Aid in the tracking of cases. Answer parent and staff health related questions. Manages ill students. COVID reporting.

Work Shift: As deemed necessary.

Protocol: When on-site

  • Google calendar will be used to indicate times.
  • Health assessment will be completed electronically or on paper.

Title: School Building Principals and Assistant Principals

Description: Responsible for the oversight of students, teachers and staff.  Responsible for overseeing the day to day operation of the schools.

Justification:  Responsible for the day to day operations of the building.

Work Shift: Individual office hours.

Protocol: When on-site

  • Google calendar will be used to indicate times.
  • Health assessment will be completed electronically or on paper.

Title: Instructional Programs

  • Teachers
  • Teachers Assistants
  • Teaching Aides
  • Special Education
  • Athletics

Description: Responsible for preparing lesson plans and educating and assessing students at all levels. Assists in promoting the social emotional wellbeing of students.

Justification:  Provide lessons to in school and/or virtual students.

Work Shift: As deemed necessary. Will be socially distanced based on assignments to classrooms.

Protocol: When on-site

  • Sign-in sheets will be used to track times entering and leaving.
  • Health assessment will be completed electronically or on paper.

Title: Health-Safety-Risk Manager

Description: Provides technical assistance on matters related to compliance with federal, state and local regulations. Aids in the development of plans/programs and training.

Justification:  Will come in to assist with various district needs as required.

Work Shift: As deemed necessary.

Protocol: When on-site

  • Sign-in sheets will be used to track times entering and leaving.
  • Health assessment will be completed electronically or on paper.

Title: Messenger/Mail Services

Description: Business Office/Central Office to assume the role. Post Office to deliver to Page Avenue ONLY. Delivery to buildings twice a week.

Attachment 2 – Cleaning and Disinfection Protocols

Listed by Room types/areas


Cleaning frequency: Daily

Disinfection frequency: Daily

Responsible party: Custodial staff, staff and teachers.

Additional information: Doors, desks, chairs, floors, light switches and dispensers.


Cleaning frequency: 3x daily

Disinfection frequency: 3x daily

Responsible party: Custodial staff

Additional information: Doors and sinks will be done three times daily. Floors will be done once daily.

Health Offices/Isolation Rooms

Cleaning frequency: Various

Disinfection frequency: Various

Responsible party: Nursing staff; custodial staff

Additional information: Cots, bathrooms and health office equipment will be cleaned after each use. Floors will be done once daily.


Cleaning frequency: Daily

Disinfection frequency: Daily

Responsible party: Custodial staff; staff

Additional information: Doors, tables, chairs and floors


Cleaning frequency: Various

Disinfection frequency: Various

Responsible party: Custodial staff; staff; teachers

Additional information: Tables and chairs will be cleaned/disinfected in between each group’s use.

Outside Seating Areas

Cleaning frequency: Various

Disinfection frequency: Various

Responsible party: Custodial staff; staff; teachers

Additional information: Tables and chairs will be cleaned/disinfected in between each group’s use.

Computer Labs

Cleaning frequency: Various

Disinfection frequency: Various

Responsible party: Custodial staff; staff; teachers

Additional information: Equipment to be cleaned/disinfected between each use. Doors, tables, chairs and floors will be done once daily.

Science Labs

Cleaning frequency: Daily

Disinfection frequency: Daily

Responsible party: Custodial staff; staff; teachers

Additional information: Equipment to be cleaned/disinfected between each use. Doors, tables, chairs and floors will be done once daily.

Maintenance Office and Work Areas

Cleaning frequency: Daily

Disinfection frequency: Daily

Responsible party: Custodial staff

Additional information: Doors, desks, chairs and floors where applicable.


Cleaning frequency: Daily

Disinfection frequency: Daily

Responsible party: Custodial staff; librarians

Additional information: Equipment to be cleaned/disinfected between each use. Doors, tables, chairs and floors will be done once daily.

Maintenance Office and Work Areas

Cleaning frequency: Daily

Disinfection frequency: Daily

Responsible party: Custodial staff

Additional information: Doors, desks, chairs and floors where applicable.


Cleaning frequency: As needed

Disinfection frequency: N/A

Responsible party: Custodial staff

Additional information: It is recommended not to use disinfectant products outdoors.

School Vehicles

Cleaning frequency: After each use

Disinfection frequency: After each use

Responsible party: Staff using vehicles

Additional information: Vehicles with one (1) driver will be disinfected at the end of each shift.

Administrative Offices

Cleaning frequency: Daily

Disinfection frequency: Daily

Responsible party: Custodial staff

Additional information: Doors, desks, chairs and floors.

Large Meeting Areas (auditoriums)

Cleaning frequency: N/A

Disinfection frequency: N/A

Responsible party: N/A

Additional information: These areas will not be used. When these areas will be returned to use, then an appropriate frequency for cleaning/disinfecting will be established.


Cleaning frequency: Daily

Disinfection frequency: Daily

Responsible party: Custodial staff; staff and teachers

Athletic Training Rooms, Locker Rooms

Cleaning frequency: N/A

Disinfection frequency: N/A

Responsible party: N/A

Additional information: These areas will not be used. When these areas will be returned to use, then an appropriate frequency for cleaning/disinfecting will be established.

Frequently touched surfaces (e.g., doorknobs, light switches, elevator buttons, copy machine

buttons, handles, etc.)

Cleaning frequency: 2x daily

Disinfection frequency: 2x daily

Responsible party: Custodial staff

Shared frequently touched surfaces (e.g., keyboards, desks, phones, laptops, tablets, remote

controls, etc.)

Cleaning frequency: After each use

Disinfection frequency: After each use

Responsible party: Staff using shared surfaces

Shared equipment (e.g., hand tools, facilities equipment, grounds keeping equipment, golf cart,


Cleaning frequency: After each use

Disinfection frequency: After each use

Responsible party: Staff using shared surfaces

Only district-approved chemicals will be used. At no time will students be allowed to use cleaners or disinfectants.

Approved by the CCSD Board of Education 3/24/2021

Appendix 5 – Cohoes City School District: Emergency Remote Instruction Plan (ERI Plan)

Following the COVID-19 pandemic, school districts in New York are required to have a plan for how children will be educated if a school or schools must close under emergency conditions. Emergency conditions include, but are not limited to, extraordinary adverse weather conditions, impairment of heating facilities, insufficiency of water supply, shortage of fuel, destruction of a school building, or a communicable disease outbreak.

 A. Communication and Engagement

To help inform our Emergency Remote Instruction Plan, the Cohoes City School District (CCSD) completes a Digital Equity Survey for all our families in grades Kindergarten through 12. The data collected helps us better understand the level of student access to devices (e.g., laptop, Chromebook, mobile phone) and Internet connectivity to ensure that, to the extent
possible, students can access the Internet and receive remote instruction, if necessary, under emergency conditions.  This survey is completed annually and is also included as part of the registration of students new to our district. Students and families can update their access information at any time by contacting their child’s school.

We have also developed a plan for communicating all necessary information should a school or schools need to close. CCSD will use existing internal and external communications channels to notify staff, students, and families/caregivers about remote learning schedules with as much advance notice as possible. This communication will include information about how computing devices are being disseminated to students who need them.
CCSD will communicate with parents through multiple repeat messages via ParentSquare. This Information communicated through ParentSquare will automatically translate into the parent’s/student’s preferred language.

Additionally, phone calls will be made when needed as additional means of communication. Information will also be posted to the District website.
CCSD will provide students and families with multiple ways to contact schools and teachers during remote learning including via ParentSquare, email, and Synergy -our student communication platform.

B. Device, Internet and Platform Access
To support remote learning, the district will provide computer devices to all students who need them. To assist in determining need the most current Digital Equity Survey will be reviewed. Communication will also occur as described above to determine students whose access may have

CCSD will provide support and repairs for district-owned student computing devices. If a district owned device is in need of service, parents are encouraged to communicate with their child’s building principal via Parent Square messaging, phone call or email. The building principal will coordinate the repair or replacement with Instructional Technology staff and be in
communication with the parent. The Instructional Technology Specialist will be available to provide support with learning platforms and software. A google form will be available on the District website and shared through ParentSquare for this purpose.

To the extent possible, the district will also work to support students and families with accessing the internet at home. Where that is not possible CCSD will work with community organizations and to help ensure that students have access to Wi-Fi. CCSD will communicate public sites with Wi-Fi access to parents via ParentSquare and our district website.

All instructional and professional staff have been provided with district devices that include cameras and microphones to ensure remote learning capabilities from their place of residence.

The district will work with any staff member without Wi-Fi/internet access at their place of residence to provide the necessary technology to enable them to deliver emergency remote instruction.

To ensure high- quality remote learning experiences we will primarily use Google Classroom or Synergy (currently in transition) as our main learning platform for Grades K-5 and Schoology or Synergy (currently in transition) as our main platform for Grades 6-12. Students will log into the platform to access their teacher’s link to meet live synchronously. Faculty and staff also have access to Google Meet which will allow them to meet individually or with groups of students, parents and colleagues. Students who are unable to participate in remote learning will be provided copies of materials.

C. Teaching and Learning
CCSD’s emergency remote instruction plan is designed to support all students. When a remote learning model is necessary, certain groups of students will be prioritized for in-person learning to the greatest extent possible, depending on the nature of the emergency. This includes, but is not limited to, special education students, English language learners, and students with
technology or connectivity needs.  The District will assess this based on circumstances and individual student needs to determine an appropriate course of action.

Acknowledging that the typical content in each grade level or course may need to be adjusted, content will be prioritized to ensure that students receive instruction for the prioritized learning standards, key understandings, and skills necessary for students’ success in future study.

Instruction will focus on “core” subject areas; however, elective courses will continue to be offered in a remote learning environment. All instruction will continue to be aligned to the New York State Learning Standards.

Virtual learning schedules have been developed by grade level. If an emergency requires the district to move to virtual learning, these schedules will be reviewed and shared with students and families in accordance with the communication strategies outlined earlier in this plan.

Students will be given opportunities to engage with teachers and classmates through live instruction, question and answer periods with teachers and group work (i.e., synchronous learning). Teachers will ensure that their students are directly engaged with them and their class peers in experiential learning regularly. Supplementing this time will be self-guided projects,
readings and other age-appropriate assignments that can be completed by the students remotely (i.e., asynchronous learning). Students will also utilize asynchronous learning with special area teachers.

Building principals, with the assistance of our Communication Specialist will send guidelines and schedules for remote learning via ParentSquare.

Student Attendance:
Attendance records will be maintained for all students during periods of emergency remote instruction utilizing the district’s Student Information System. Attendance at the elementary level will be taken virtually by the grade level teacher twice each day, in the morning and after the break for lunch. Attendance at the middle and high school levels will be taken virtually during
each period of instruction by the course specific teacher. Attendance will be analyzed weekly and respective school teams will work with students and families to avoid potential chronic absenteeism CCSD teachers, counselors, social workers, and other staff will proactively reach out to students and families via phone calls, emails, Parent Square messaging, and virtual
sessions if regular attendance and student engagement are not occurring.

Family outreach and education will be provided to support families understanding of remote learning and how to support their children,

D. Support Services
Students with disabilities will continue to receive support services in accordance with their Individualized Education Plan (IEP) should remote learning become necessary It is the expectation that all service providers (i.e. teachers, related service providers and paraprofessionals) will sign on to the remote learning platform to provide support to students.

This will include large group virtual classrooms and the use of virtual group breakout rooms and/or one-one virtual meetings. To address the unique needs of students with disabilities, faculty and staff will continue to work collaboratively with families to discuss individual needs, identify, access to the curriculum and services that can be provided. CCSD will provide training, resources, and tools to assist IEP teams in providing determining needed services. All remote special education programs will continue to follow age and size requirements as prescribed by NYSED.

The CCSD Director of Special Programs and Assistant Director of Special Programs will be actively involved in the oversight of emergency remote special education instruction, to ensure the continued provision of a free appropriate public education. Each student with a disability has a designated case manager who will provide immediate oversight of the delivery of programs and services to students on their caseload. Paraprofessionals will provide remote instructional assistance to students as directed by the case manager Accommodations and modifications as prescribed by a student’s IEP will be delivered remotely.

Documentation of mandated IEP services will be noted by each individual service provider on a weekly basis with service or tracking logs for each student. Student progress will be noted in report cards and parents will receive quarterly progress reports form the teacher and related service provider(s)

The Department of Special Programs will follow its existing communication protocols with parents regarding the provision of special education services for their children. CSE Meetings, if permissible will be held in person, with a virtual option. If necessary virtual meetings will be held. Special education and related service providers will contact parents through ParentSquare,
email, and phone to monitor students’ progress toward goals and provide check-ins for families and students.

E. Funding Requirements
Based on the District’s Emergency Remote Instruction Plan, the estimated number of hours per day that the Cohoes City School District would claim for state aid purposed are:

Elementary Schools– 6 hours
Cohoes Middle and Cohoes High School– 6.5 hours

Board of Education Approval: 8/9/23

Preparing our students for success in tomorrow’s world.

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